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Operating System(OS) is a program which acts as an intermediary between the computer hardware and user and manages and controls execution of all types of programs, at initial stage it is loaded in the computer by a boot program. It provides an environment in which the user executes the program in a convenient and efficient manner. In technical term, operating system is defined as software which manages the hardware and it controls the resource allocation and services like processors, devices, memory and information and it is also known as low-level software that support’s the basic functioning of the computer like recognizing input given from the keyboard, providing output on the display screen, keeping files and directories on a disk, controlling the peripheral devices like drives and printers. All the other programs on a computer are known as application programs or applications and these applications are processed and executed with the help of OS. Applications use OS by sending request for service with the help of API(Application Program Interface) and users interact directly with OS with user interface like command language or GUI(Graphical User Interface). OS is responsible for security, it ensures that no unauthorized users can access the system.
Operating System is classified as Multiuser i.e., it allows more than two users to run their programs at same time, Multiprocessing i.e., program can run on more than one CPU, Multitasking i.e., more than one program can run concurrently and Real time i.e., responds instantly to the input. Its main services includes: user interface, application program commands, installation supervision, working of programs, hardware, control on input and output functions, allocation of system resource and peripheral devices, managing files and directories and file sharing and network functions.
operating system is the most imperative programming that keeps running on a PC. It deals with the system memory, procedures, and the greater part of its product and equipment. It likewise permits to correspond with the system
Objectives of an Operating System
Simplify the execution of client projects and make taking care of client issues
Use system equipment proficiently
Operating System Views-
To distribute assets (programming and equipment) of the system framework and oversee them effectively.
Controls execution of client projects and operation of I/O gadgets.
The project that executes always (everything else is an application )
The CPU is multiplexed among a few tasks that are placed in memory of system and on disk (the CPU is placed to a task)
The task is swapped all through memory to the disk
Parallel Systems -
Multiprocessor frameworks with more than on CPU in close correspondence.
Firmly coupled framework – processors offer memory and a clock; communication happens through the mutual memory.
Distributed Systems -
Distribute the calculation among a few physical processors.
Loosely coupled framework – every processor has its own particular local memory; processors correspond with each other through different networking line.
operating System Structure-
Multiprogramming required for productivity
Single client can't keep CPU and I/O gadgets occupied at all times. Multiprogramming sorts out tasks (code and information)
Timesharing (multitasking) is logical augmentation in which CPU switches jobs so that clients can communicate with every tasks while it is running, in this
time of response < 1 second
Every client has no less than one system executing in memory
What is Operating System ?
An Operating system is software that creates a relation or interface between the User, Software and Hardware. All computers need a basic software known as an Operating System to function. The Operating System acts as an interface between User, Application Programs, Hardware and System Peripherals. The Operating System is first loaded when a computer starts up and then the entire application programs are loaded. Whenever an application needs information or data it requests it from the Operating System which in turn queries the system clock on the motherboard. User interacts with the computer through the Operating System then OS interprets the inputs given by a user through Keyboard, Mouse and other input devices.
An Operating System are of Three Types:
- Single User Win-ME , MS-Dos, MS-Win 95-98.
- Multi User XENIX , UNIX, Linux.
- Network Novel Netware, Win-NT, Win-2000-03
- Single User: If the single user operating system is loaded in computer’s memory, the computer will be able to handle one user at a time.
- Multi user: If the multi-user operating system is loaded in computer’s memory, the computer will be able to handle more than one user at a time.
- Network: If the network operating system is loaded in computer’s memory, the computer will be able to handle more than one computer at a time.
Operating System provides a text based interface referred as command prompt. From the command prompt commands may be issued for performing file and disk management and for running program. Results of these commands are presented to user as text message.
The command prompt may be an alphabet followed by a colon (:), a back slash (\), one greater than sign (>) and a blinking element called as cursor (_).
An operating System is thus intermediary which is formed between both the users and as well as computer hardware. Technically it is the software that manages hardware. Thus an operating System controls
the designation of assets and administrations, for example, memory, processors, devices and data.
A operating system framework is the program that, is being initially loaded into the PC by a boot program, deals with the various projects in a computer known as application programs. The application
programs make use of operating system so as to work framework demands for administrations through a characterized application program interface (API).
The most vital elements of operating system are:-
Memory administration alludes to administration of Primary Memory or Main Memory. Primary memory is a substantial cluster of words or bytes where every word or byte has its own address.
In multiprogramming environment, OS chooses which prepare gets the processor when and the amount of time. This capacity is called process scheduling.
Keeps tracks of all the devices. Moreover the program that is responsible for the device management task is known as the I/O controller.
A file framework is ordinarily composed into indexes for simple navigation and usage.
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Topics covered under Operating Systems Assignment help :
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- System calls, threads, context switches, interrupts, interprocess communication, coordination of concurrent activities, file system I/O, networking, processes, threads, context switching, synchronization, scheduling, deadlock, linking, dynamic memory allocation, dynamic address translation, virtual memory, demand paging, storage devices, disk management, scheduling, directories, protection, crash recovery
- Operating systems , operating system structures, System call interfaces , Processes, threads, Concurrent programming in Pthreads and Java, Thread scheduling, synchronization, Managing deadlock, Memory management , virtual memory, File systems, Mass storage structures, Ongoing Linux/UNIX, Windows, Android, iOS
Help for More complicated Operating Systems topics like :
Memory Systems, Basic concepts Contiguous storage allocation Single- and multi-programming Segmentation Paging, File Systems
- Synchronization: Relevance and Problems, Race Conditions, Semaphores, CPU Scheduling, Types of CPU Scheduling, Algorithms, Deadlock,
Operating system structure
UNIX vs Windows
Process Control Blocks
Bootstrapping an OS
UNIX source code
Compiling and debugging the system
Implementation of modules
Performance analysis modules
isoftware and hardware interaction
System software design
file systems security
Directory organization File types and file organization, Case Studies, Windows/NT, Unix, Introduction to Operating Systems, History of Operating Systems, Operating System Structure, Different Operating Systems Overview, Processes and Threads, Concurrency, Processes, Threads, Context Switch, Synchronization